Glossary: c

CAF

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used alone or together with other therapies to treat breast cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and fluorouracil. Also called CAF regimen.

CAF regimen (… REH-jih-men)

An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used alone or together with other therapies to treat breast cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It includes the drugs cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and fluorouracil. Also called CAF.

calcification (KAL-sih-fih-KAY-shun)

Deposits of calcium in the tissues. Calcification in the breast can be seen on a mammogram, but cannot be detected by touch. There are two types of breast calcification, macrocalcification and microcalcification. Macrocalcifications are large deposits and are usually not related to cancer. Microcalcifications are specks of calcium that may be found in an area… Read more »

cancer (KAN-ser)

A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or… Read more »

cancer antigen 125 (KAN-ser AN-tih-jen…)

A substance that may be found in high amounts in the blood of patients with certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. Cancer antigen 125 levels may also help monitor how well cancer treatments are working or if cancer has come back. Also called CA-125.

cancer cell line (KAN-ser sel line)

Cancer cells that keep dividing and growing over time, under certain conditions in a laboratory. Cancer cell lines are used in research to study the biology of cancer and to test cancer treatments.

cancer cluster (KAN-ser KLUS-ter)

The occurrence of a larger-than-expected number of cases of cancer within a group of people in a geographic area over a period of time.

Cancer Information Service (KAN-ser in-fer-MAY-shun SER-vis)

The Cancer Information Service is the National Cancer Institute’s link to the public, interpreting and explaining research findings in a clear and understandable manner, and providing personalized responses to specific questions about cancer. Access the CIS by calling 1-800- 4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237), or by using the LiveHelp instant-messaging service at https:// livehelp.cancer.gov. Also called CIS.

candidiasis (KAN-dih-DY-uh-sis)

A condition in which Candida albicans, a type of yeast, grows out of control in moist skin areas of the body. It is usually a result of a weakened immune system, but can be a side effect of chemotherapy or treatment with antibiotics. Candidiasis usually affects the mouth (oral candidiasis); however, rarely, it spreads throughout… Read more »