Glossary: g

gadolinium (GA-duh-LIH-nee-um)

A metal element that is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other imaging methods. It is a contrast agent, which helps show abnormal tissue in the body during imaging with a special machine.

Gail model (… MAH-dul)

A computer program that uses personal and family medical history information to estimate a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer. Also called Gail risk model.

Gail risk model (… MAH-dul)

A computer program that uses personal and family medical history information to estimate a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer. Also called Gail model.

gene (jeen)

The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

gene amplification (jeen AM-plih-fih-KAY-shun)

An increase in the number of copies of a gene. There may also be an increase in the RNA and protein made from that gene. Gene amplification is common in cancer cells, and some amplified genes may cause cancer cells to grow or become resistant to anticancer drugs. Genes may also be amplified in the… Read more »

general anesthesia (JEH-neh-rul A-nes-THEE-zhuh)

A temporary loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep. It is caused by special drugs or other substances called anesthetics. General anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures.

general surgery (JEH-neh-rul SER-juh-ree)

The branch of surgery that covers the main areas of surgical treatment. General surgeons treat diseases of the abdomen, breast, head and neck, blood vessels, and digestive tract. They also manage care of patients who have been injured or who have deformities or other conditions that need surgery.

genetic (jeh-NEH-tik)

Inherited; having to do with information that is passed from parents to offspring through genes in sperm and egg cells.